Ventilation systems should be sized so that they can meet certain criteria that vary depending on the type of facility. Independent of the principle of operation of the sensing elements themselves, and in terms of cabling and process control capabilities, carbon monoxide detection systems can be divided into two basic groups, similar to fire alarm systems:

1. Systems with a collective address

2. Analog-addressable systems

They are distinguished by:

• Distribution of zones defined by cable structure (zone-line);
• star topology with one or more detectors per zone;
• alarm signals to activate executive functions directly on the control panel;
• information on the concentration of carbon monoxide (ppm) available at the zone (line) level, based on the maximum measured by the zone of the associated detectors.

In the topological and process-control sense, the most technologically advanced at the moment.

• Each of the detectors as well as the executable modules is a microprocessor device with a unique address and is an integral element of an address line or loop;
• the maximum number of address elements connected to one line is up to 127;
• the concentration of carbon monoxide available at the individual detector level;
• defining alarm thresholds at the individual detector level;
• far more efficient and economical cabling than conventional systems.

Air flow and velocity detector 

Visibility and carbon monoxide detector

According to available official data, carbon monoxide is the leading cause of accidental poisoning deaths worldwide. Therefore, it is not surprising that the competent legislatures of many countries, including ours, recognizing this gas as a "silent killer", have introduced the obligation to implement systems for its automatic detection, signaling and control of ventilation systems for risky spaces such as public garages. 

The need to divide the protected object into zones results from the fact that larger surfaces are characterized by the spatial dispersion of carbon monoxide concentration and thus the need to distribute system functions.

Carbon monoxide (Form CO) is an invisible, odorless and tasteless gas that is produced by incomplete combustion of carbon-based fuels (fossil, wood, coal). It exerts its toxic effect by binding to the hemoglobin molecules in the blood cells and thus forming carboxyhemoglobin. As a result, the total number of hemoglobin molecules available for a similar but useful oxygen-binding reaction during which oxyhemoglobin is formed is reduced. To make matters worse, carbon monoxide in this reaction behaves far more aggressively than oxygen and binds to hemoglobin with 240 times greater efficiency and thus, in proportion to its concentration, reduces the ability of the blood to supply cells, tissues and organs with oxygen. This causes the effect of poisoning with symptoms ranging from headache and nausea to permanent damage to vital organs and death.

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